Why is design improvisational?  We talk about design as if it were fixed: as if there were one best way to design everything. We celebrate designers who produce especially elegant or usable artifacts as if they were possessed of supernatural powers. Yet design should be easy. It is the application of “best practice” principles to a specific situation. We can observe how the users of a designed artifact or system work, then design the artifact or system accordingly. Why does that approach fail so often?

The key issue is the problem of “the problem.” Designers are taught a repertoire of designs-that-works: patterns that fit specific circumstances and uses. Experienced designers are capable of building up a deep understanding over time, of which problem-elements each of these patterns resolves. So they can assess a situation, recognise familiar problem-elements, then fit these with design patterns that will work in these circumstances. The problem comes when a designer is faced with a novel or unusual situation that they have not encountered before. Novice designers encounter this situation a great deal. As designers succeed or fail at successive designs, they accumulate experiential knowledge, that allows them to assess new situations quickly and to understand which design elements will work or fail in that situation. The problem with this is that (as the Princess said) you have to kiss an awful lot of frogs to get a Prince. An awful lot of people end up with really bad designs, because their designer did not recognize elements of the situation well enough to understand which pattern-elements to implement. If you are really unlucky, you will also end up with one of those designers who feel it is their mission in life to prevent the end-user “mucking about with” their design. If you are lucky, your designer will recognize that it is your design, not theirs. They design artifacts and systems in ways that allow people to improvise how they are used — and the role that they play in the work that people do.

Improvisation takes a multitude of forms. It might be that you customize the color of your screen (often because the designer thought that a good interface should look like a play-school). This may not do much for the function of your work-system, but it does mean that your disposition towards work is a heck of a lot sunnier as you use it. Or it might be that the information system which you use expects you to enter data on one step of your work before another. You might be able to enter data into a separate screen for each step, reordering the steps as you wish. More usually, you have to enter fake data into the first step, then go back later to change this, once you have the real data. This is because IT systems designers treat software design as a well-structured problem. A well-structured problem is one that contains the solution within its definition. Defining the problem as a tic-tac-toe game application means that you have a set of rules for how the game is played which absolutely define how it should work. The only discretion left to the designer is whether to support one or two players and how to present the functions in a usable screen interface. This is not rocket science: most designers can manage this level of design without making the game unusable.

But information systems applications tend to present wicked problems. A wicked problem is a problem that cannot be defined objectively, but needs the people involved (the stakeholders) to agree on what the problems that they face are, what are their priorities in resolving these, and what they want to achieve in changing things in the first place. A wicked problem can be understood as a web of interrelated problems. It is not always clear what the consequences will be, of solving any part of this mess. Some of the problems may have “obvious” solutions. But implementing these solutions may make other, related problems worse or better. For example, consider the problem of providing State-based unemployment benefit in the USA (see the diagram on the “systems thinking” page). If one State offers such benefits and a neighboring State does not, unemployed people will move to the State which does offer benefit payments. This will place a greater tax burden on that State, causing the more affluent residents and businesses to move out. This increases unemployment, raising the tax burden, causing more people and businesses to move out. The act of offering State-based unemployment benefits leads that State into a downward spiral in which their budget becomes unmaintainable and employment opportunities are significantly reduced. For wicked problems, a wider perspective is needed, that examines interactions between problem elements and which analyzes the impact of one problem-solution on other problems. It is not always possible to foresee all unintended consequences. So solutions must be designed flexibly, for changes to be implemented as the consequences are realized and to permit customization by stakeholders and users.

People are infinitely improvisational. They develop work-arounds and strategies to manage poor design. But I constantly ask myself why should they have to develop work-arounds for poor design? What is it, about the design process, that leads us to such constraining IT systems, interfaces, and work procedures that are based on the system design, rather than system designs that are based on flexible work-procedures? This website reflects findings from my research studies and reflections from my own experience in design, to discuss some key underlying principles of design, to explore how the design process works in practice (rather than how we manage it now, which is based on unsupported theoretical models), and to present a way of managing design differently.  Improvisationally.